Effect of Design on the Evacuation Time for the Colosseum of Rome
The article analyzes the space-planning characteristics of the most famous amphitheater of ancient times of the Roman Colosseum (Rome, Italy) in the field of evacuation in case of fire. 3D computer models of the arena were built, and evacuation was simulated using the Sigma FS software (Russia). A comparative analysis of the space-planning solutions of the arena with the modern concept of organizing the provision of the unhindered and timely evacuation of people is carried out. It has been established that a number of features have been designed in the Colosseum, which makes it possible to carry out evacuation more successfully than in modern sports facilities: the configuration of the stairs, providing a high speed of movement; the average duration of clusters is three times less, and there are fewer turns on the stairs. It is shown that the layout of the Colosseum makes it possible not to carry out a phased evacuation and does not require fencing the escape routes from the main space. In general, the Roman Colosseum did not require evacuation control (routing) to equalize a load of traffic on the stairs and reduce the time of congestion in front of the stairs.