The problem of efficiency of application of special means of improving the quality of impregnation, modification and preservation of wood is extremely important in Russian economy. Economic and environmental efficiency of wood treatment with the aim of increasing its structural and finishing properties is quite obvious, but at the moment there is no single methodology for determining it for different types of impregnating polymeric composite materials and for the method of impregnation. The aim of this study is a detailed analysis of traditional and perspective methods of impregnation, preservation and modification of wood using different types of polymer composite materials, and identifying the most effective methods. The study gives a list of the main methods and means of wood protection, all groups of pests harmful to wood, and forms a list of technologies for the impregnation of wood using different physical peculiarities of the process and equipment according to the critical analysis of the technological equipment of the impregnation plants. One of the important results of the study is identifying criteria for the quality of impregnation of wood and recommendations on labor protection in enterprises, with consideration of environmental aspect. According to the results of the study the following conclusions were formulated. At first, it is extremely advisable to optimize parameters of deep impregnation of the wood with the use of basic available technologies. Second point is that at this time the most promising methods of wood treatment are autoclave method using a vacuum and high pressure, and the method of exposure to wood ultrasonic electromagnetic waves. Finally, the technology ultrasonic industrial impregnations is still not developed, there is no technological scheme and necessary equipment.