Energy sustainability of resedential development as the assessment criterion of city energy-system
The article presents the results of a complex experimental-analytical research of residential development energy parameters - survey of construction sites and determination of calculated energy parameters (resistance to heat transfer) considering their technical condition. The authors suggest a methodology for assessing residential development energy parameters on the basis of construction project’s structural analysis with the use of Kohonen’s self-organizing maps (SOM). SOM clustering permitted to divide the housing stock (on the example of Arkhangelsk city) into groups with similar technical-operational and energy parameters. The methodology for index assessment takes into account the synergistic influence of the characteristics of the construction project itself and the area where it is located. It is also possible to measure energy parameters of construction project of each cluster by comparing them with reference (normative) measures and also with each other. 7 clusters are obtained and grouped together by different development strategies (a list of possible reproductive activities): objects with heat losses that meet the standards, in good condition suitable for long-term operation; objects with the greatest heat losses in a satisfactory condition suitable for further operation; objects with high heat losses in unsatisfactory condition. Urban development projects forming a cluster are displayed on a geo-information basis – the heat map. The designed heat map shows the general condition of the area by the level of residential development energy sustainability. It was revealed, the main part of capital construction projects does not meet the requirements of energy efficiency. The design resistance to heat transfer of the residential development cladding (walls) in the central part of the Arkhangelsk is twice lower than the normative value. On the basis of the proposed strategies it is possible to develop targeted development programs for individual areas (for example quarters) taking into consideration the characteristics of the formed residential development aggregate.