During the construction of high-rise buildings, a significant attention is paid to the quality of construction materials. In our article we are presenting the possibility of using the criteria of similarity of the processes of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue in the creation of metal structural materials. The composition of the criteria includes determining values, the sizes of which are not determined by measurement in the process of testing materials. The efficiency of the presented criteria is demonstrated by the example of selection of titanium alloy compositions for marine engineering, structural and technological parameters of structural steels. The invariance of the similarity criterion of low-cycle fracture in artificial seawater of titanium alloys with yield strength up to 785 MPa was experimentally established. The possibility of evaluation of the theoretical stress concentration factor of welded elements on the test results of specimens under symmetrical cycle of stretching-compression is shown.