Construction is one of the most energy-intensive sectors of the economy, which at the same time is one of the most flexible in terms of the introduction of innovations aimed at achieving a sustainable, comfortable and efficient environment. Today special attention is paid to the energy-efficient and environmentally friendly housing. One of the most important steps on the way of solving this problem is to design the thermal insulation of the building with the most rational use of materials in terms of thermal and environmental performance. The authors considered various insulation materials, characterized by high technical parameters and environmental friendliness. The properties of materials were described. The calculations were made to choose the most rational solution to insulation of the building envelope. Specific heat loss per 1 m2 of the exterior wall were determined. The proposed design using XPS is consistent with both Russian standards and the principles of green building.