The paper discusses the possibilities of use of high-strength fibrous carbon materials (CFRPs) in the bridge construction. A comparative analysis of the mechanical properties of the main types of carbon fibers is carried out, alternative variants of high-strength fibers are considered. The characteristics of specific strength and stiffness of carbon composites are compared with characteristics of traditional structural materials. The tension capacity and elastic modulus of carbon fibers lie in a rather wide range. Despite the superiority of the elastic modulus of carbon fibers over the elastic modulus of a traditional material - steel - and alternatives (para-aramid fibers and high modulus polyethylene fibers), carbon fibers are more fragile and less resistant to bending. At the same time, in terms of specific indicators of strength and stiffness, CFRPs surpass almost all polymer and metal materials used in construction. According to this, the concept of application of carbon fibers in the bridge construction is presented in the study.